In both Languages its meaning is The study of the soul or mind.
The derivation of "psyche" comes from Latin and the Greek psukhe - breath, life, soul. To get a better "feel" for this term try to think of it as the invisible animating principle or entity that occupies, interacts with and directs the physical body. The spirit or soul.5 Sec Rule -- Summary of Mel Robbin's Book
The human mind. In psychoanalysis, the mind functioning as the center of thought, emotion, and behavior. And defining "soul", we have: 1. The spiritual or immortal elements in a person.
A person's mental or moral or emotional nature. This meaning has been altered over the years until today; this is not what the word means at all.
The subject of psychology, as studied in colleges and universities, currently has very little to do with the mind, and absolutely nothing to do with the soul or spirit.
It is important to understand that words and ideas are supposed to refer to something. For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society. The founder of Psychology was William Wundt. In he established first lab Leipzig in Germany. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a Psychologist. Applications of Psychology in Different Fields Psychological tests and methods have proved useful in solving some concrete problems.
Whereas basic researchers test theories about mind and behavior, applied psychologists are motivated by a desire to solve practical human problems. Psychology helps the human in many different fields. Psychology in Education Psychology helps the students in getting Education by solving their problems.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.
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Title: Forensic Psychology. Description: The intersection of psychology and law has grown steadily Mug shot. Post event information. Attitudes and expectations. Forensic Psychology.
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The psychology of communication
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Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects.In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Meaning and Definitions of Psychology 2. Scope of Psychology 3. Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes. Behaviour includes all of our outward or overt actions and reactions, such as verbal and facial expressions and movements.
Mental processes refer to all the internal and covert activity of our mind such as thinking, feeling and remembering. It is a scientific study because to study behaviour and mental processes, the psychologists use the scientific methods for understanding more precisely and accurately. The earliest attempts at defining Psychology owe their origin to the most mysterious and philosophical concept, namely that of soul. What is soul? How can it be studied? The inability to find clear answers to such questions led some ancient Greek philosophers to define psychology as the study of the mind.
Although the word mind was less mysterious and vague than soul, yet it also faced the same questions, namely what is mind? How can it be studied, etc. This definition was also rejected. The description and explanation of the states of consciousness is the task of Psychology which is usually done by the instrument introspection—process of looking within.
The most modern and widely accepted definition of psychology even today, is the study of behaviour, both humans and animals. Science is the body of systematized knowledge that is gathered by carefully observing and measuring events. The observation of events are systematized in various ways but mainly classifying them into categories and establishing general laws and principles to describe and predict events as accurately as possible.
Psychology has these characteristics; it clearly belongs within the province of science. Thus it is not simply enough to describe behaviour. Like any other science, psychology attempts to explain, predict, modify and ultimately improve the lives of people in the world in which they live.
By using scientific methods psychologists are able to find answers to questions about the nature of human behaviour that are far more valid and legitimate than those resulting from mere intention and speculation. The experiments and observations which are made can be repeated and verified by others because of its objectivity, reliability, validity and predictability which are the characteristics of basic science. The field of psychology can be understood by various subfields of psychology making an attempt in meeting the goals of psychology.
In the most fundamental sense, human beings are biological organisms. Physiological functions and the structure of our body work together to influence our behaviour. Biopsychology is the branch that specializes in the area. Here the studies are with respect to how people grow and change throughout their life from prenatal stages, through childhood, adulthood and old age. Developmental psychologists work in a variety of settings like colleges, schools, healthcare centres, business centres, government and non-profit organizations, etc.
They are also very much involved in studies of the disturbed children and advising parents about helping such children. It also studies the individual traits that differentiate the behaviour of one person from that of another person. This explores the relations between the psychological factors and physical ailments and disease. Health psychologists focus on health maintenance and promotion of behaviour related to good health such as exercise, health habits and discouraging unhealthy behaviours like smoking, drug abuse and alcoholism.
Health psychologists work in healthcare setting and also in colleges and universities where they conduct research. They analyse and attempt to improve the healthcare system and formulate health policies. It deals with the assessment and intervention of abnormal behaviour. Clinical psychologists are employed in hospitals, clinics and private practice.
They often work closely with other specialists in the field of mental health. This focuses primarily on educational, social and career adjustment problems. Counselling psychologists advise students on effective study habits and the kinds of job they might be best suited for, and provide help concerned with mild problems of social nature and strengthen healthy lifestyle, economical and emotional adjustments.Contemporary psychologists have, since World War IIshown considerable interest in the ways in which communications occur.
Behaviourists have been prone to view communication in terms of stimulus-response relationships between sources of communications and individuals or groups that receive them. By the mids, psychological interest settled largely on the persuasive aspects of various types of messages.
It would appear, though with qualifications, that individuals are indeed variably persuasible and that, at times, factors of personality are related to this quality. An example of cognitive dissonance may involve a person who considers himself a superb bowler but who on one occasion earns an extremely low score.
This produces tension. To reduce this tension—dissonance—the bowler may change his behaviour or misinterpret or reinterpret the dissonant elements in order to lessen the difference between the facts. For example, he may blame his performance on the bowling ball, the alley, or the temperature of the room. Thus he seeks a psychological equilibrium. It must not be assumed that any of the theories of audience psychology offered to date including those of Gestaltists, Freudians, behaviourists, and others lack relevance to an understanding of communication processes.
None, however, seems to account fully for all the effects of communications upon people. The many facets of communication offer substantial problems for future psychological experimentation and theorizing. Article Media.
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Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Models of communication Linear models Entropy, negative entropy, and redundancy Feedback Dynamic models Applications of formal logic and mathematics Types of communication Nonvocal communication Signals Signs Symbols Icons Gestures Proxemics Vocal communication Adaptability of language Laughter Mass and public communication Prerequisites for mass communication Control of mass communication Effects of mass communication The psychology of communication.
Load Previous Page. The psychology of communication Contemporary psychologists have, since World War IIshown considerable interest in the ways in which communications occur. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Animal behaviourthe concept, broadly considered, referring to everything animals do, including movement and other activities and underlying mental processes. Human fascination with animal behaviour probably extends back millions of years, perhaps even to times before the ancestors of the species became human in the modern sense.
Initially, animals were…. Languagea system of conventional spoken, manual signedor written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves.
The functions of language include communication, the expression of identity, play, imaginative expression, and emotional release. Broadcastingelectronic transmission of radio and television signals that are intended for general public reception, as distinguished from private signals that are directed to specific receivers.
In its most common form, broadcasting may be described as the systematic dissemination of entertainment, information, educational programming, and other features for simultaneous reception…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address.
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More About. HistoryWorld - History of Communication. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.This course is part of the Foundations of Positive Psychology Specialization.
Positive interventions are one of the building blocks for the application of positive psychology in our day-to-day lives. In this course taught by Dr. James Pawelski, we explore positive interventions through theory, research and practice.
We provide learners the basic tools for using and measuring positive psychology in professional or personal contexts. Suggested prerequisite: Positive Psychology: Martin E. The University of Pennsylvania commonly referred to as Penn is a private university, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
A member of the Ivy League, Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, and considers itself to be the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. Excellent course. It builds up in the first basic course. Besides theoretical understanding the course provides practical tips which are useful in ones own life as well as in guiding others. A good follow-up on the first course in this specialization.
I liked the fact that we got a lot of home work assignments, as it really helped in anchoring those things which were taught. I absolutely enjoyed this course. I can use all I have learned in my personal life as well as in my profession. I particularly enjoyed learning about the goal-setting frameworks.
This is an excellent course, exactly what I was looking for. Teaches the skills of savoring, goal setting and pursuing the goals. The assignment were very good and helped a lot. Peer review assignments can only be submitted and reviewed once your session has begun.
If you choose to explore the course without purchasing, you may not be able to access certain assignments. When you enroll in the course, you get access to all of the courses in the Specialization, and you earn a certificate when you complete the work. Your electronic Certificate will be added to your Accomplishments page - from there, you can print your Certificate or add it to your LinkedIn profile.Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior.
Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including relating to individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behavior, mind and thought and the subconscious neurological bases of behavior.
Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness.
It is largely concerned with humans, although the behavior and mental processes of animals can also be part of psychology research, either as a subject in its own right e. Psychology is commonly defined as the science of behavior and mental processes. Health Department: Health psychology is the application of psychological theory and research to health, illness and health care.
Whereas clinical psychology focuses on mental health and neurological illness, health psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much wider range of health-related behavior including healthy eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's understanding of health information, and beliefs about illness. Health psychologists may be involved in public health campaigns, examining the impact of illness or health policy on quality of life or in research into the psychological impact of health and social care.
Now a days, Health Psychology is also applied in Pakistan like the developed countries. In Pakistan, Health psychologists are involved in the betterment of health policies by the government.
Industrial Psychology focuses on improving, evaluating, and predicting job performance while Organizational Psychology focuses on how organizations impact and interact with individuals. Inthrough the works and experiments of Hugo Munsterberg and Walter Dill Scott, Industrial Psychology became recognized as a legitimate part of the social science.
Industrial organizational psychologists look at questions regarding things such as who to hire, how to define and measure successful job performance, how to prepare people to be more successful in their jobs, how to create and change jobs so that they are safer and make people happier, and how to structure the organization to allow people to achieve their potential. Educational Psychology: Educational Psychology is concerned with all aspects of psychology that are relevant to education and psychology, particularly in the areas of human development, learning and motivation, education of the gifted and talented, and instructional psychology.
The role of Educational Psychology is to bring together theory and research from psychology and related disciplines in order to facilitate healthy human development and effective learning and teaching. Educational psychology is rarely applied in Pakistan. But it is one of the significant field of psychology that is atleast applied in Pakistan to some extent.
Clinical Psychology: Clinical psychology is the application of abnormal psychology research to the understanding, treatment, and assessment of psychopathology. This primarily includes behavioral and mental health concerns. It has traditionally been associated with psychological treatment and psychotherapy, although modern clinical psychology may take an eclectic approach, including a number of therapeutic approaches.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.
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View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Learning Theories. Skinner Introduced behaviorism theory. Learning occurs by experiencing and Provided by: carmenr Tags: classical conditioning learning theories. Latest Highest Rated. Models of psychology that explain how individuals learn and how information is comprehended and retained.
Learning occurs by experiencing and engaging in repeated trial and error. He described classical conditioning as emotional reaction to a stimulus. Operant conditioning is a response to a stimulus that is reinforced positively, negatively, or by punishment 4 Principles of Behaviorism Theory Positive Reinforcement a condition is set to encourage good behavior that will most likely be repeated.
Negative Reinforcement a condition that is set up to avoid and diminish an incentive for a behavior. Punishment a condition that is set to diminish a desired conduct that results from unwelcome consequences. Source Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology 5 Benjamin Bloom Cognitive theorist that focused beyond behavior as means to explain learning.
Synthesis The ideas that surface from it. Analysis How will you relate the information?